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    豬圖騰石雕出現

    發布時間:2012-05-21 22:05:10
     

    全國重點文物保護單位城子山遺址,位于赤峰市敖漢旗薩力巴多與瑪尼罕鄉交界處,為青銅時代遺址,距今4000年至3500年。它是目前國內發現的規模最大、祭壇數量最多的祭祀遺址。

        該遺址為夏家店下層文化中心祭祀遺址,是遼西地區出現早期國家的實證,也是中國目前最大的豬的圖騰形象發現地。近日,記者對此進行了采訪。

        城子山遺址

        城子山遺址是2000年9月中旬至10月底,中國社會科學院考古研究所內蒙古工作隊與敖漢旗博物館合作,在對該旗西北部新石器時代至青銅時代早期的聚落遺址,進行調查時發現的,確認這是兩處保存狀況較好,且具有特定聯系的夏家店下層文化中心祭祀遺址。而夏家店下層文化祭祀中心的再現,說明4000多年前此處已是繁華之地,代表了北方的文明。

        當年,考察城子山遺址的領隊中國社會科學院考古研究所公共考古中心常務副主任劉國祥研究員和敖漢旗博物館原館長、赤峰文博專家邵國田這樣描述城子山遺址:城子山遺址為橢圓長方形,平面呈不規則的"亞"字形。城北、東、西三面略呈圓形,南側略呈長方形,城頂地勢較平,西北略高,東南略低。城子山遺址主體分布范圍約6.6平方公里,其中主梁呈西北-東南向分布,總長2.2公里。

        共發現有10個祭祀遺址點,均分布在山梁的頂端,主梁海拔高度為855.6米。其中一號地點位于主梁的最北端,是現已發現的十個地點中規模最大、祭壇分布數量最多、保存最好的一處。平面呈不規則多邊形,總面積約15萬平方米。外側有石塊壘砌的圍墻,周長為1418米,東南側和東側保存較好,局部現存高度0.5米,寬度為1-2米,石墻的外側多分布有弧形護坡。

        祭壇石窩

        對于當年考察的重大發現,劉國祥和邵國田認為,祭壇和積石冢遺跡主體建筑在主峰頂部。

        城子山遺址一號地點共有祭壇232個,其中主墻內側六個區內共分布有228個,主墻外側分布有4個,直徑2-13米。西北側墻外有一個祭壇,其北部約5米為陡峭的懸崖,大型自然石塊上局部有人工磨光痕。

        另外三個祭壇分布在東區東南側墻外,其中一個祭壇的東北側緊臨有磨光痕的大型自然石塊,共有三塊,呈東北--西南向排列,中間一塊面積最大,長3.5米、寬2米。石塊表面全部磨光,中部略偏北有一個方圓形的小坑,邊長0.2米。

        祭壇的形制可分為以下四類:一類是整個祭壇均用石塊砌筑而成,有的祭壇表面的石塊已凌亂,有的則明顯看出砌筑呈同心圓形。二類是外緣壘砌出石圓圈或弧形石圈,里面平整或為隆起的土丘。此類祭壇數量最多。三類是整個祭壇為隆起的土丘,外圍砌筑有方形的石墻。四類是整個祭壇由較大的自然石塊圍砌而成,中心立置一塊長方形或三角形石塊,石塊的一面正中或偏下有一個圓窩。

        此次同時發現多處被打磨得十分光滑的巨石,巨石為自然形成,與懸崖等融為一體,上面有深淺不一的石窩,其中之謎等待著人們的破譯。

        豬圖騰出現

        劉國祥說,在城子山遺址南區南側外圍主墻中部發現一巨型石雕豬首形象,也是當時調查的重要收獲之一。

        豬首頂部留有小塊磨光痕,兩側有數道弧形人工雕琢痕,吻部噘起,大嘴張開,雙目圓睜,朝向正南方的鴨雞山。豬首長9.3米、吻部寬2.1米、額頭寬7.5米、額頭頂部距地面高5米,與主區示壇和遠方的鴨雞山處在一條直線上。這是中國目前發現的最大的豬的圖騰形象。

        劉國祥介紹,豬首系用原有的一塊巨型晶屑熔巖石體雕琢而成,技法簡潔流暢,棱線分明,吻部及雙目特征突出,神態逼真。據專家介紹,遼西地區崇拜祭祀豬有悠久的歷史,興隆洼二期聚落"首領"式人物的旁邊埋有一雌一雄兩頭整豬;趙寶溝文化中將野豬的形象刻劃在祭祀用的陶器尊形器上;紅山文化中雕出玉豬龍的形象,具有更深遠的意義。在夏家店下層文化大甸子墓地中,用整豬隨葬更是隨處可見。

        石器數量較多

        城子山遺址采集的遺物中主要是石器和陶器,其中石器的數量相對較多。

        從采集遺物分析看,陶器多夾砂,泥質陶少見。器表多呈灰褐色或灰色,也有的呈紅褐色或黑色。表面大多施紋,紋樣種類有繩紋、籃紋、弦紋、附加堆紋等。主要器類有鼎、鬲、?[、盆、罐、甕等。石器依加工方法不同可分為打制、磨制、琢制、壓削四類。打制石器占絕大多數,典型器類有兩側內凹的亞腰石鏟、梯形石斧、圓形石球等。圓窩形石器數量較多,器體大小不一,外形多不規整,體側留有明顯的打制痕,底面平整或略凸,正面多平整,有的經過琢制,居中部位有一個圓窩。磨制石器有方形石鏟、梯形石錛、長方形石刀等。琢制石器有磨棒、餅形器等。壓削石器僅見長方形或三角形的小石葉。

        值得欣慰的是,在目前已調查過的夏家店下層文化祭祀遺址中,城子山遺址是規模最大的一處,相當于牛河梁紅山文化中心性祭祀遺址主體分布范圍的5倍,可斷定為夏家店下層文化中心性祭祀遺址。夏家店下層文化的年代約為距今4000年至3500年左右,與中原夏王朝的年代大體相當。城子山遺址的發現,為深入探討夏家店下層文化所處社會發展階段,及遼西地區早期國家的出現,提供了考古實證資料。National key cultural relics protection units at Hill site, located in Chifeng City, Ao Hanqi SA meribbaal more with the township at the junction, is a Bronze Age site, since from4000 to3500. It is currently the largest altar found, the largest number of religious sites.The site for the Lower Xiajiadian Culture Center of worship sites, in western Liaoning is early state of empirical, is also China's largest pig totem image found. Recently, the reporter undertook interviewing to this.The Hill siteThe mountain is the site of the2000mid September to the end of10, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Inner Mongolia teams up with the Ao Hanqi Museum in cooperation, to the northwest of its Neolithic to early Bronze Age settlement site, surveys found, confirmed that this is the two place to keep in good condition, and has specific links Lower Xiajiadian Culture Center of worship sites. While the Lower Xiajiadian Culture of reproduction worship center,4000years before this office is the bustling, represents the northern civilization.In those days, examines the Hill site team leader of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in public archaeology, the center is standing vice director Liu Guoxiang fellow and former curator of Aohan banner Museum, Chifeng cultural expert Shao Guotian described the Hill site: the Hill site for elliptical rectangular, planar irregular"inferior" font. North, East, West three on the south side of the slightly rounded, slightly rectangular, top city terrain is relatively flat, slightly southeast northwest high, slightly lower. The Hill site body distributed in the range of about6.6square kilometers, which is northwest- southeast to the distribution of main beam, a total length of2.2 km.A total of10 were found to have religious sites, are distributed in the top of the mountain, elevation855.6 meters in height of girder. Which one place is located in the northern end of the main beam, which is the ten place in the largest, the largest number of altar distribution, one of the best preserved. Planar irregular polygon, a total area of about150000 square meters. The stone built walls, circumference is1418 meters, the southeast side and on the eastern side of well preserved, local existing height of0.5 meters, width is1-2 meters, the lateral walls are distributed in an arc slope protection.The altar stone nestWhen the investigation discovery, Liu Guo and Shao Guotian, the altar and the accumulating Cairn remains the main building in the peak top.The Hill site on the site comprises232main altar, the medial wall of six zone a total distribution of228, the main wall of the lateral distribution of4meters, diameter2-13. The northwest side wall has an outer altar, the north about5 meters to the steep cliff, large-scale natural stone local artificial polishing mark.The other three altar distribution in the south-east of the eastern side wall, wherein an altar to the northeast side close to have polished mark large natural stones, a total of three pieces, with the Northeast-- southwest to the arrangement, the intermediate piece the area is the largest,3.5 meters long,2 meters wide. Stone surface polishing, slightly north of the middle there is a square and circular hole, the length0.2 meters.The altar shapes can be divided into the following four categories: one category is the altar with masonry stones into the altar, some surfaces of the stones have been messy, some obvious concentric circular masonry. The two class is built out of stone circle or arc of the outer edge of the stone circle, which is flat or a bulge in the mound. The largest number of the altar. The three category is the altar for the uplift of the mound, peripheral masonry with a square stone. The four category is the altar by the larger natural stone masonry and Wai, center is provided with a rectangular or triangular stones, stones of a median or partial has a circular nest.At the same time the discovery of multiple polished smooth Boulder, boulder is a natural formation, and the cliffs above com., with a socket, wherein the mystery waiting for people to decipher.Pig totem appearLiu Guoxiang said, in the Southern District on the south side of the main wall Hill site periphery central found a huge stone pig head image, is also the time to investigate the important harvest one.The pig is left at the top of small polishing mark, both sides has a plurality of arcuate artificial mark, the snout pursed, mouth open, eyes wide open, to just south of the yajishan. Pig heads of9.3meters,2.1 meters wide forehead snout,7.5 meters wide,5 meters high from the ground at the top of the forehead, and the main area and the altar and the distant Yajishan in a straight line. It is found in China is the largest pig totem.Liu Guoxiang describes, the pig is original a giant crystal lava stone body crafted, technique is simple and smooth, clear edges, the snout and binocular features prominent, lifelike expression. According to experts, western Liaoning worship ritual pig has a long history, Xinglong wa two phase settlement"chief" people are buried beside one female and one male and two whole pig; Zhao Bao ditch culture boar image characterizations in the ceremonial pottery Zun shaped device; in Hongshan Culture carved jade pig dragon image, has far-reaching significance. In the Lower Xiajiadian Culture Dadianzi cemetery, with the whole pig burial is everywhere.There are a large number of stoneThe Hill site acquisition remains mainly stone and pottery stone, wherein a relatively large number of.From the collection of relics of pottery, multiple sand, clay pottery rare. Watch for more grayish brown or gray, sometimes reddish brown or black. Surface mostly applied pattern, pattern type of Jomon, basket lines, chord lines, additional heap pattern etc.. Main class Ding, Ge, Yan, pots, cans, jars and other. The stone according to different processing methods can be divided into system, grinding, cut system, pressure cutting four categories. Stone occupies the overwhelming majority, the typical class has two sides of concave inferior lumbar stone chipping, trapezoidal axe, round stone balls. Round nest shaped stone number, a device body size, shape and more irregular, body side leaving obvious chipped scar, the bottom is flat or slightly convex, positive more smooth, some after cut system, the middle part has a circular nest. Polished stone square stone chipping, trapezoidal, rectangular stone knives, stone adze. Zhuo system of stone grinding rods, cheese etc.. Pressure cutting stone only rectangular or triangular small stone leaves.Thankfully, the current has been investigated the Lower Xiajiadian Culture religious sites, the mountain is the site of one of the largest, is equivalent to the Niu Heliang culture center of sacrificial site main distribution range of5 times, it can be concluded as the Lower Xiajiadian Culture Center of religious sites. Lower Xiajiadian Culture was about4000 years ago to around3500, and the Central Plains Xia Dynasty era roughly equivalent. The Hill site of the discovery, as deeply into the Lower Xiajiadian Culture stages of social development in the west of Liaoning Province, and early national occurrence, provides archaeological data.

       

     

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